Hochzeitsgedichte

Hochzeitsgedichte

HOCHZEITSGEDICHTE

Hochzeitsgedichte oder auch Brautlieder (griechisch. etwa ‚Lied auf das Brautgemach‘; Latein. ‚epithalamium‘) ist eine Art Gelegenheitsgedicht das chorisch vorgetragen wird und sich auf die Feierliche Hochzeit bezieht.
Geschichtlich ist das Hochzeitsgedicht tief mit der Hochzeitszeremonie verwurzelt, so haben schon in der Antike die Griechen und Römer es als Brauch gepflegt. Aus Überlieferungen geht hervor, dass vor dem Schlafgemach, der frisch Verheirateten Griechen oder Römern, junge Männer und Frauen abgestellt wurden. Diese gaben Laszive Verse zum besten die dem Ehepaar gewidmet waren. In der Regel wurde der Weg von der unverheirateten zur verheirateten Frau beschrieben und mit Segenswünsche und Prophezeiungen abgerundet.

Hochzeitsgedichte im Mittelalter

Auch im Mittelalter pflegte man besondere Hochzeitsgedichte. Auf der einen Seite standen derbe Texte für das Volk, auf der anderen Seite höfisch-ausformulierte Texte. So umschrieb man am Hofe die Heimbringung der Braut und die Feierlichkeiten und im Volke wurden das Brautpaar mit Wein uns Gesang zu Bett getragen.

 

 

Hochzeitsgedichte in der Neuzeit

Das erste Hochzeitsgedicht der Neuzeit wurde um 1595  von dem Englischen Dichter Edmund Spenser geschrieben. Es galt als Hochzeitsgeschenk an seine Frau Elizabeth Boyle. Es gilt als das berühmteste und meist geschätzte seiner Art in der englischen Sprache.

Auszug aus Epithalamion, Strophe 1:

Ye learned sisters which have oftentimes
Beene to me ayding, others to adorne:
Whom ye thought worthy of your gracefull rymes,
That even the greatest did not greatly scorne
To heare theyr names sung in your simple layes,
But joyed in theyr prayse.
And when ye list your owne mishaps to mourne,
Which death, or love, or fortunes wreck did rayse,
Your string could soone to sadder tenor turne,
And teach the woods and waters to lament
Your dolefull dreriment.
Now lay those sorrowfull complaints aside,
And having all your heads with girland crownd,
Helpe me mine owne loves prayses to resound,
Ne let the same of any be envide:
So Orpheus did for his owne bride,
So I unto my selfe alone will sing,
The woods shall to me answer and my Eccho ring.

Quelle: poetryfoundation

Zur gleichen Zeit schrieben in Großbritannien verschiedene andere Dichter und Denker Hochzeitsgedichte, wobei die verschiedenen Ausprägungen der Gattung teilweise von den Griechen und Römern übernommen wurden. So wurde je nach Art der Feier und Stimmung teilweise komödiantische, derbe oder hochromantische Gedichte geschrieben.

Auch in andere Teilen der Welt, z.B. in Frankreich und Italien, entstehen die ersten Versuche der Hochzeitsgedichte. Der Brauch diese Gedichte personifiziert für das frisch Vermählte Paar zu verfassen wird immer bekannter. So entstehen erste Auftragsarbeiten, wie z.B. für die Vermählungsfeier des Deutschen Fürsten Carl Theodor, welches von den gnädigst aufgestellten Lehrern des churfürstllichen Schulhauses, in Auftrag gegeben wurde.

Hochzeitsgedichte in der heutigen Zeit

Anéis | Rings

Noch heute gehören Hochzeitsgedichte  in vielen Kulturen zum festen Bestandteil von Hochzeitsfeiern. Die Gedichte werden meist auf der abendlichen Hochzeitsfeier vorgetragen oder auch in einer Hochzeitszeitung abgedruckt. Oftmals sind Trauzeugen oder enge vertraute des Brautpaares Verfasser der Hochzeitsgedichte und tragen diese dann, teilweise in kleinen Gruppen, teilweise mit Musik untermalt, während der Feierlichkeiten vor. Viele Ehepaare machen solch Hochzeitsgedichte auch zum offiziellen Teil der eigentlichen Hochzeitszeremonie und tragen diese dann als eine Art  besonderen Eheschwur vor.

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